English version

gene in Microbes, genetics, biochem topic

From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishgenegene /dʒiːn/ ●●○ S3 W3 noun [countable]  HBa part of a cell in a living thing that controls what it looks like, how it grows, and how it develops. People get their genes from their parents.genetic human genes the genes that regulate cell divisionCOLLOCATIONSadjectivesa dominant gene (=a gene that has its effect when there is only one copy of it)The disease occurs when a child inherits a single dominant gene from a parent with the disease.a recessive gene (=a gene that has its effect only when there are two copies of it)The gene for blue eyes is recessive.a defective/faulty gene (=a gene that does not work properly)The disease is caused by a defective gene.a human geneThe actual number of human genes is still in dispute.verbshave a geneIdentical twins have the same genes.carry a gene (=have a gene that causes a medical condition which you can pass on to your children)Some women carry a gene which makes them more likely to develop breast cancer.pass on a gene (=pass a gene to your children)All animals try to maximize their chances of passing on their genes to the next generation.inherit a gene (=get a gene from your parents)Children who inherit the defective gene seem normal at birth apart from a deformity of the toe.identify/discover a gene (=find a particular gene which is responsible for something)Scientists have identified a gene which seems to protect Chinese people from some types of cancer.gene + NOUNthe gene pool (=all the genes in a particular species)It is hoped that these new wolves will mate with the native population and increase the wolves' gene pool.gene therapy (=using genes to treat diseases)Scientists have successfully treated the disease using gene therapy.
Examples from the Corpus
geneFurthermore, a rearrangement of the IRF-1 gene was identified in one additional patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.Some women may carry a gene that increases the risk of breast cancer.But because genes are also selected in the environment provided by other genes in different species, arms races develop.Information is transferred by genes in much the same way as it is by words.One possibility is that there are master genes whose products control the activity of many others.Research has indicated that narcoleptics have a set of genes that are triggered by unknown factors to cause narcolepsy.Both snail genes and fluke genes stand to gain from the snail's bodily survival, all other things being equal.I could print out pictures of the insects' bodies, but I had lost their genes.So, what determines whether these genes are transcribed?