English version

rough in Nature topic

From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishroughrough1 /rʌf/ ●●● S2 W3 adjective (comparative rougher, superlative roughest) πŸ”Š πŸ”Š 1 not smoothCSROUGH/NOT SMOOTH having an uneven surface opp smooth πŸ”Š Her hands were rough from hard work. πŸ”Š the rough terrain at the base of the mountains πŸ”Š We were bumping over the rough ground.2 not exactAPPROXIMATELY [usually before noun] not exact, not containing many details, or not in a final form syn approximate πŸ”Š a rough sketch of the house πŸ”Š a rough translation πŸ”Š Could you give me a rough idea what time you’ll be home? πŸ”Š a rough estimate of the cost πŸ”Š First do a rough draft of your essay.3 problems/difficultiesDIFFICULT a rough period is one in which you have a lot of problems or difficulties syn tough πŸ”Š The first year was rough, but things have gotten better. πŸ”Š Sounds like you had a rough day. πŸ”Š We’ve been through some rough times together. πŸ”Š My boyfriend and I were going through a rough patch. πŸ”Š The bill is in for a rough ride in the Senate. πŸ”Š It’s been rough going, but we’ve almost finished now.4 not gentleVIOLENT using force, anger, or violence opp gentle πŸ”Š Rugby is a very rough sport. πŸ”Š Don’t be too rough – she’s only little. πŸ”Š Paul gave her a rough shake. πŸ”Š equipment capable of withstanding rough treatment πŸ”Š The referee won’t allow any rough stuff (=violent behaviour).be rough on somebody (=treat someone unkindly or criticize them in an angry way) πŸ”Š Don’t you think you were a little rough on her?β–Ί see thesaurus at violent5 town/area etcVIOLENT a rough area is a place where there is a lot of violence or crime πŸ”Š a rough part of town6 weather/seaDN with strong wind or storms opp calm πŸ”Š The ship went down in rough seas.7 voice/sound a) ROUGH VOICEnot sounding soft or gentle, and often rather unpleasant or angry πŸ”Š Barton’s deep, rough voice b) CSOUNDhaving an unpleasant sound, especially because there is something wrong with a machine πŸ”Š The clutch sounds rough – better get it checked.8 simple/not well madeSIMPLE/NOT COMPLICATED simple and often not very well made πŸ”Š a rough wooden table9 not comfortableCOMFORTABLE# uncomfortable, and with difficult conditions πŸ”Š The journey was long and rough.10 β†’ have rough edges11 β†’ rough night12 β†’ a rough deal13 β†’ feel rough14 β†’ look rough15 β†’ rough and ready16 β†’ rough justice β€”roughness noun [uncountable] β†’ rough diamond, rough paper, roughlyCOLLOCATIONS – Meaning 3: a rough period is one in which you have a lot of problems or difficultiesnounsa rough day/week etcHe’s had a rough week at work.a rough timeMy children had a rough time because they were different from the rest.a rough patch (=a difficult time that does not last long)He was good at encouraging his team when it hit a rough patch.a rough ride (=a time when you are criticized, opposed etc)She was given a rough ride by the press.Though the president pushed the bill through the House of Representatives, it faces a rough ride in the Senate. rough going (=a difficult and unpleasant experience)If there is a recession, next year will be very rough going.THESAURUSrough having a surface that is not flat or smoothrough grounda rough mountain pathThe walls were all rough.Her hands were rough and work-hardened.uneven an uneven surface has areas that are not flat or not all at the same levelThe floor was uneven.She climbed the uneven steps with great care.bumpy a bumpy road, path, or area of land has a lot of holes and raised parts in itthe bumpy track down to the farmThe field was too bumpy to play football on.a bumpy journey (=on a road that has a very rough surface)coarse having a rough surface that feels slightly hard – used especially about materials such as cloth or woolcoarse woollen blanketscoarse grassThe wool felt rather coarse.rugged /ˈrΚŒΙ‘Ι™d/ land that is rugged is very rough and uneven and is often in a high placethe rugged terrain near the mountainsCOLLOCATIONS CHECKrough ground/sea/stone/skinuneven surface/floor/pavementbumpy road/field/journeycoarse cloth/wool/paper/grassrugged terrain/mountain/landscape/coastline
Examples from the Corpus
roughβ€’ His hands were big and rough.β€’ The stone scraped her legs, was rough against her hands.β€’ It was a rough crossing and most of the passengers were seasick.β€’ I've had a rough day.β€’ It's just a rough draft, but I'd like you to read it and tell me what you think.β€’ He fell, cutting his forehead on the rough edge of a rock.β€’ Armagnac, rather like SuperBrat, is appealing because of its rough edges, its unpredictability.β€’ I've got a rough estimate here of what it might cost.β€’ I'd say that the whole thing would cost you around $1000, but that's just a rough estimate.β€’ A rough gravel trail was the only way into town.β€’ Prices shown are only a rough guideline.β€’ It is rough, he says, very bad.β€’ Hessian cloth provides a rough homespun texture that was popular in the 1950s.β€’ A rough hut, breadfruit, bananas, no one to talk to.β€’ Give us a rough idea of what you're trying to do.β€’ She had a rough idea of where Harry lived, but she didn't know the exact street.β€’ rough mountain pathsβ€’ Most of the activities are routed through woodland and as some of the pathways can be rough outdoor footwear is recommended.β€’ He gave us a rough outline of the course.β€’ I have not been able to do more than suggest the rough outline of this approach.β€’ Max grew up in a particularly rough part of Brooklyn.β€’ The commonest are rough spar or aggregate finishes, and imitation brick and stonework; all can be painted if required.β€’ Football's a rough sport.β€’ Photographs show the rough surface of the moon.β€’ We were having a rough time just trying to pay the printer.β€’ Here you meet the Garburn Road, a rough trackway which crosses over the pass.β€’ "What are you doing in here?'' shouted the farmer in a rough voice.β€’ Fran was shaking her urgently, his voice rough with concern.rough draftβ€’ One approach to the hypertext-to-text coherence problem is a labor-intensive one and treats the hypertext form as a rough draft.β€’ Tanedo works individually with students, helping them brainstorm and write rough drafts.β€’ She cobbled together a rough draft and then rewrote it, trying to remove the more ostentatious signs of plagiarism.β€’ Let let me do the rough draft and then we can go.β€’ He kept a journal now, one filled with assignments from Speech and Psychology and Math and various rough drafts for me.β€’ Could it really be the first rough draft of a Euro-constitution?β€’ For a while the conditions are so propitious that by spring break I have a rough draft of my book.rough goingβ€’ We were continually mending punctures ... It was really rough going on those jobs.β€’ My own preference has always been for the rough-coated variety since these can withstand weather and rough going very much better.be rough on somebodyβ€’ These post-ideological times are rough on an avant-garde that always needed an orthodoxy against which to kick.β€’ It was rough on Leeds but not on Harte, who deserved little better for his theatrical antics.β€’ This is rough on the phone company, which still organizes the phone book by first names.rough seasβ€’ A free country in a free world is always at risk from high winds and rough seas.β€’ The equity department weathered not only rough seas but rejection as well.β€’ Dawn revealed that the rough seas had once again snapped the hogging trusses which sagged pitifully on each side of the raft.β€’ Sebastian Cermeno, went down in rough seas in 1595, along with at least seven sailors.β€’ The latter on each occasion was either defeated by rough seas or spotted by enemy aircraft.β€’ It took a bishop called Wilfred, who was driven on to the Sussex coast by rough seas, to make the breakthrough.β€’ Holding on to the balcony as if we were in rough seas, we shout only to have our words whipped away.