to record information about a situation or set of events over a period of time, in order to see how it changes or develops:
Scientists have been charting temperature changes in the oceans.
to make a plan of what should be done to achieve a particular result:
Each team was responsible for making its own decisions and charting its own course.
to make a map of an area of land, sea, or stars, or to draw lines on a map to show where you have travelled [↪ uncharted]