1the chief medical officer of the US Public Health Service. The Surgeon General is responsible for giving advice about health and finding out whether particular chemicals, foods etc are safe. For example, bottles of alcohol and packages of cigarettes that are sold in the US must have labels with the Surgeon General's warning.
2the chief medical officer of the US army, navy, or air force
Definition from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Advanced Learner's Dictionary.
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