English version


From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishbyby1 /baɪ/ ●●● S1 W1 preposition  1 XXwho/what does something used especially with a passive verb to say who or what does something or makes something happen I was attacked by a dog. a church designed by the famous architect, Sir Christopher Wren We are all alarmed by the rise in violent crime. interference by the state in the affairs of the Church his appointment by the BBC as a producer2 WAY/METHODmeans/method used to say what means or method someone uses to do something You can reserve the tickets by phone. Send it by airmail. Some customers prefer to pay by cheque.by car/train/bus/taxi etc They travelled to Chicago by train.by air/sea/land/road/rail etc All supplies are transported by air.by doing something She earns her living by selling insurance. He was taken from his home by force.3 XXroad/door used to say which road, entrance, door etc someone uses to get to a place They came in by the back door. It’s quicker to go by the country route.4 XXtaking hold used to say which part of an object or of a person’s body someone takes hold of He took Elaine by the arm and led her across the road. She grabbed the hammer by the handle.5 COME FROM/ORIGINATEwriter/composer etc used to give the name of someone who wrote a book, produced a film, wrote a piece of music etc the ‘New World symphony’ by Dvorak a short story by Charles Dickens Who’s it by?
6 NEXT TObeside beside or near something She stood by the window. Jane went and sat by Patrick.7 NEXT TOpast past someone or something without stopping He walked right by me without even saying hello. I pass by the farm every day on my way to work.8 BEFOREbefore before or not later than a particular time The documents need to be ready by next Friday. I reckon the film should be over by 9.30. By the end of the day we had sold over 2,000 tickets. By the time we got home we were tired and hungry.see thesaurus at before9 DEPEND/IT DEPENDSaccording to according to a particular rule, method, or way of doing things You’ve got to play by the rules. Profits were £6 million, but by our standards this is low.10 XXchange/difference used to say how great a change or difference is The price of oil fell by a further $2 a barrel. I was overcharged by £3. Godard’s first film was better by far (=by a large amount or degree).
11 SIZEmeasurements used to give the measurements of a room, container etc a room 15 metres by 23 metres12 XXquantity used to show what unit of measurement or quantity is involved in selling, paying for, producing etc something Eggs are sold by the dozen. We’re paid by the hour. She wanted to tear his hair out by the handful.13 XXgradual change used to say that something happens gradually Day by day, he grew weaker. Little by little, I was beginning to discover the truth about Garfield. One by one, the men stepped forward.14 XXquick change used to say that something or someone is quickly becoming worse, better etc The financial crisis was growing more serious by the hour.15 DURINGlight used to say that something happens in a particular kind of light We walked through the palace gardens by moonlight.
16 by day/night17 XXjob/nature etc used when you are giving information about someone’s character, job, origin etc George I and George II were Germans by birth. Cautious by nature, Simpkin was reluctant to interfere. Robert Key was a teacher by profession.18 VISITvisiting in order to visit a person or place for a short time On the way, I stopped by the post office.19 (all) by yourself20 COUNT/CALCULATEmultiplying/dividing used between two numbers when talking about multiplying or dividing What’s 48 divided by 4?21 XXemphasis used when expressing strong feelings or making serious promises By God, I’ll kill that boy when I see him!22 BABY/HAVE A BABYfather if a woman has children by a particular man, that man is the children’s father She’s got two children by her previous husband.23 by the byUSAGE: By, withBy is used, especially after passive verbs, to say who or what does something: The article was written by a university professor.She was hit by a truck.With is used after verbs that describe a state rather than an action: The books were covered with dust.Her house is always filled with music. Don't say: covered by dust | filled by musicBy is used to say what means or method someone uses to do something: He replied by email.With is used to say what tool is used to do something: Clean the surface thoroughly with a wire brush. Don't say: by a wire brush
Examples from the Corpus
byI was overcharged by $3.I'll be home by 6.30, I promise.By 9.00, most of the guests had arrived.I'll be home by 9:30.Jim was bitten by a dog.Colette is French by birth.Please try to have this done by Friday.By God, we actually did it!Ann has two children by her ex-husband.I go by John's place on my way to work; I can pick him up.By law, cars cannot pass a school bus while it is stopped.It's fine by me if you want to go.He walked by me without saying hello."Hamlet" was written by Shakespeare.Doris came in by the back door.I picked the pot up by the handle.Most restaurant workers are paid by the hour.Everyone is worried by the rise in violent crime.I saw him standing by the window.Profits were $6 million, but by their standards this is low.by doing somethingCaroline earns extra money by babysitting.by farIn the tropics, for example, malaria is by far a bigger killer.Worse by far, he thought Freud was talking about structures rather than processes.Chain superstores are crowded, yet the fastest-growing sales sector by far is on the Internet.Reading was by far my favorite activity as a child.But the most dramatic by far of the failures of deregulation involved the savings and loans.I felt that until Colin Cameron was sent off we were by far the better side.Low turnout may benefit Buchanan, whose fervent backers are by far the most committed.This final stretch, a 4,000-foot ascent over 13 winding miles, is by far the most daunting.Half of the people were in California, by far the most populous and modern of the western states.
byby2 ●●● S1 W1 adverb  1 PASS/GO PASTpast someone or something As I was standing on the platform, the Liverpool train went whizzing by. James walked by without even looking in my direction.2 used to say that time passes As the summer days slipped by, it was easy to forget about the war. Ten years had gone by since I had last seen Marilyn.3 NEXT TObeside or near someone or something A crowd of people were standing by, waiting for an announcement.4 VISITin order to visit a person or place for a short time Why don’t you stop by for a drink after work?5 by and large6 by and by
Examples from the Corpus
byI lay on the grass and watched the clouds floating by.As we talk, Dolph Lundgren waddles by.Three hours went by before we heard any news.The weedy water slid by between him and the shoals and ledges.One or two cars went by, but nobody stopped.As Ahab and the crew pass it by from day to day they ponder its meaning.There are lots of spots close together around the city centre, then many more close by in a car.One woman reported seeing a man go by on a motorcycle.A high school couple walked by, talking ofJesus.
by-by-, bye- /baɪ/ prefix XXless important a by-product (=something made in addition to the main product) a by-election (=one held between regular elections)
Examples from the Corpus
by-a byproduct
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