Language: Old English


1 preposition
in1 S1 W1
1 used with the name of a container, place, or area to say where someone or something is:
There's some sugar in the cupboard.
My mother was in the kitchen.
He took us for a drive in his new car.
I found her sitting up in bed.
Manson spent fifteen years in prison.
a hole in the ground
Mr Fisher is in Boston this week.
My parents live in New Zealand now.
see usage note at
2 into a container, place etc:
I never went in pubs.
He almost drowned when he fell in the river.
You can put your pyjamas in the bottom drawer.
Get in the car.
She looked in her handbag, but her keys were not there.
3 used to say how something is done or happens:
a room furnished in the modern style
Her parents always talk to her in German.
She shouted my name in a harsh voice.
a short note scribbled in pencil
The title was printed in capital letters.
We waited in silence.
4 used with the names of months, years, seasons etc to say when something happens:
Shaw first visited Russia in 1927.
Bright yellow flowers appear in late summer.
He retired in October.
5 during a period of time:
It was amazing how much we managed to do in a day.
the hardest decision I ever made in my life
6 at the end of a period of time:
I'll be with you in a minute.
The results will be announced in two weeks' time.
see usage note after1see usage note by1
7 used with negatives or with 'first' to say how much time has passed since the last time something happened:
I haven't enjoyed myself so much in years.
It was the team's first win in eighteen months.
8 used to name the book, document, film etc where something or someone appears:
You shouldn't believe everything you read in the newspapers.
Which actress starred in the film 'Cleopatra'?
There are a few mistakes in your essay.
In his speech Professor Leary praised the work of the volunteers.
9 making up the whole of something or included as part of something:
There are twelve programmes in the series.
How many minutes are there in an hour?
Think of a word with eight letters in it meaning 'cold'.
Owen will be playing in the England team tomorrow.
10 doing or affecting a particular kind of job:
a career in industry
He's been in politics for fifteen years.
reforms in education
11 wearing something:
He looked very handsome in his uniform.
She was dressed in a blue linen suit.
12 used to talk about the state or situation of something or someone:
I hear that their marriage is in trouble.
The engine appears to be in good condition.
His life was in danger.
The castle now lies in ruins.
13 used to say what activity a group of people do:
About 4000 students took part in the protest.
his role in the negotiations
14 used to talk about the shape, arrangement, or course of something or someone:
I want you all to stand in a circle.
She slept curled up in a ball.
Can you walk in a straight line?
15HM used between a smaller number and a larger number to say how common or how likely something is:
One in 10 homes now has cable TV.
Smokers have a one in three chance of dying from their habit.
16 used before a plural number or amount to say how many people or things are involved, or how many there are in each group:
Eggs are still sold in half dozens.
The children work in pairs.
in their hundreds/thousands etc (=in very large numbers)
People flocked in their thousands to greet their new princess.
17 used between a smaller number or amount and a larger one to say what a rate is:
Income tax stands at 23 pence in the pound.
a hill with a gradient of one in six
18 used to say what colour something is or what it is made of:
Do you have the same pattern in blue?
a sculpture in white marble
19 used to say what specific thing your statement is related to:
Milk is very rich in calcium.
Clark had become more extreme in his opinions.
an increase in fuel prices
The street is about a mile in length.
20 used to refer to the weather or the physical conditions somewhere:
I've been standing in the rain for over an hour.
Would you prefer to sit in the shade?
21 used to say what feeling you have when you do something:
She looked at me in horror.
It was all done purely in fun.
22 used before the name of someone or something when you are saying how they are regarded:
You have a very good friend in Pat.
In Dwight D. Eisenhower the Republicans had found the ideal candidate.
23 used to say what person or thing has the quality you are mentioning:
There was a hint of spring in the air.
I don't think Freddy had it in him to be a killer.
She's everything I'd want in a wife (=she has every quality I would want a wife to have).
24 used to name the substance, food, drink etc that contains something:
Vitamin D is found in butter.
25 used to say how many parts something is divided into:
a radio serial in four parts
in two/halves/pieces etc
I tore the letter in two and threw the pieces in the fire.
26 while doing something or while something is happening, and as a result of this:
In all the confusion, it is quite possible that some people got tickets without paying.
In my excitement, I forgot all about the message.
in doing something
In trying to protect the queen, Howard had put his own life in danger.

in that

used after a statement to begin to explain in what way it is true:
I've been lucky in that I have never had to worry about money.

be in your 20s/30s/40s etc

to be between the ages of 20 and 29, 30 and 39 etc:
Matthews was already in his mid 40s.

➔ in all

at all1 (11)

by, with, in
by is used especially in passives, to say who or what does or causes something She was hit by a truck. a book written by Peter CareyUse with or in after verbs which describe a state rather than an action The room was lit with candles. Her house is always filled with music. The books were covered in dust.Use with to say what tool you use to do something I got the stain out with this brush (NOT by this brush).See also by

after, in, afterwards
after is usually used as a preposition (followed by a noun) I'll do it after lunch. Please call after 9.30.after followed by a time period is more often used to talk about past events After a few minutes he followed by a time period is more often used to talk about future events He'll be here in a few minutes.after can be used as an adverb, but only following another time adverb such as soon, not long, or shortly Tim came in at midnight, and Lucy not long after.afterwards can be used instead, and can also be used as an adverb on its own His parents came shortly afterwards. You can meet the actors afterwards (NOT after).See also after

at, in, on
Talking about timeUse atwith clock times at one o'clock at 6.30with points of time in the day at midnight at noon at dawn at sunsetwith holiday periods, meaning the few days around the holiday at Easter at Diwaliwith weekend, in British English See you at the weekend! At weekends we go out.Use inwith parts of the day in the morning in the evening I never watch TV in the daytime.with months, seasons, years, centuries in May in summertime in 2004 in the 21st centuryUse onwith dates and specific days on 29th July on Tuesday afternoons on the last day of termwith weekend, in American English We sometimes go there on weekends.Talking about position and placeUse atwith particular positions or places at the end of the corridor at the back of the room at the corner of the street to mean 'next to' or 'beside' She sat at her desk. He stopped me at the door.with words for buildings, for example airport, university, restaurant, art gallery at the airport at the Lyceum theatrewith city or place names, when you are talking about stopping during a journey Does this train stop at Watford?!! BUT otherwise use in - see belowUse inwith a position or place, when something or someone is inside a larger thing such as a room in the bath in the kitchen in the garden in the doorwaywith cities, counties, states, and countries When will you arrive in Tokyo? He lives in Germany. She's working in California.with the names of squares, plazas etc in Times SquareUse onwith a position or place, when one thing is attached to or touching another a spot on the end of her nose a jacket on the back of a chairwith street names on the High Street on 42nd Street on BroadwaySee also at

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