runrun1 /rʌn/ ●●●S1W1 verb (past tense ran /ræn/, past participle run, present participle running)1move quickly using your legsRUNa)[intransitive] to move very quickly, by moving your legs more quickly than when you walkrun down/up/to/towards etcI ran down the stairs as fast as I could.He was running towards the door.She turned and ran away.The boys ran off into the crowd.run to do somethingSeveral people ran to help her when she fell.The children came running out of the house.Women ran screaming, with children in their arms.Jane struggled free and ran for her life (=ran in order to avoid being killed).Hurry! Run for it (=run as quickly as possible in order to escape)!He picked up the child and ran like hell (=ran very quickly, especially in order to escape). not politeb)[transitive] to run a particular distanceFirefighters are to run 500km to raise money for a children’s charity.He ran the length of the corridor.2racea)[intransitive, transitive]DSO to run in a raceI’d never run a marathon before.run inMurray has said she will consider running in the 3000 metres.b)[transitive]DSO if a race is run at a particular time or in a particular place, it happens at that time or in that placeThe Derby will be run at 3 o'clock. Grammar Run is usually passive in this meaning.3organize/be in charge of [transitive]CONTROL to organize or be in charge of an activity, business, organization, or countryFor a while, she ran a restaurant in Boston.Many people don’t care who runs the country.Courses are currently being run in London and Edinburgh.Many people belong to a pension scheme run by their employers.well/badly runThe hotel is well-run and extremely popular.a state-run (=controlled by the government) television station► see thesaurus at control4RUNdo something/go somewhere quickly [intransitive] to do something or go somewhere quicklyRun and ask your mother where she’s put the keys.run toI need to run to the store for some more milk.5buses/trains etca)TT[intransitive] if a bus, train etc service runs, it takes people from one place to another at fixed timesThe buses don’t run on Sundays.run toThe number 61 bus runs to the city centre.b)[transitive]TT if a company or other organization runs a bus, train etc service, they make it operateThey’re running special trains to and from the exhibition.6computersTDa)[intransitive] if a computer program runs, it operatesrun onThe software will run on any PC.b)[transitive] if you run a program, you make it operateThe RS8 system runs both Unix and MPX-32.7machine/enginea)[intransitive] if a machine or engine runs, it operatesShe got out of the car and left the engine running.run on electricity/gas/petrol etc (=get its power from electricity etc)Most cars run on unleaded fuel.run off something (=use something for power)It runs off batteries.b)[transitive] if you run a machine or engine, you make it operateYou shouldn’t keep the engine running when the car is standing still.I often run the washing machine more than once a day.8tapea)[intransitive] if a tape is running, it is recordingShe didn’t realize the tape was running as she spoke. Grammar Run is usually used in the progressive in this meaning.b)[transitive] if you run a tape, you make it move backwards or forwardsRun the tape back to the beginning.9newspaper/televisiona)[transitive] to print something in a newspaper or magazine, or broadcast something on televisionThe company is running a series of advertisements in national newspapers.A local TV station ran her story.b)[intransitive] if a program runs on television, it is shown. If a story runs in a newspaper or magazine, it is printedThe series ran for 20 episodes and was extremely popular.Conan Doyle’s stories ran in ‘The Strand’ magazine.10fast/out of control [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]FAST/QUICK to move too fast or in an uncontrolled wayHer car ran off the road and into a tree.The truck ran out of control and hit a house.11use a vehicle [transitive] especially British EnglishTTC to own and use a vehicleI can’t afford to run a car.A bicycle is relatively cheap to buy and run.12take somebody in your car [transitive always + adverb/preposition] informalTAKE/BRING to take someone somewhere in your car syn driveShall I run you home?run somebody to somethingLet me run you to the station.13in an election [intransitive] especially American EnglishPPVVOTE/ELECT to try to be elected in an election syn stand British Englishrun forSalinas is running for a second term as president.an attempt to encourage more women to run for officerun againstFeinstein will win if she runs against Lungren.14something long [intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition]DNTTR if something long such as a road or wire runs in a particular direction, that is its position, or that is where you put itThe road runs along a valley.Developers want to run a road right through his farm.Run the cables under the carpet.The Sierra mountain range runs the length of the north west coast of Majorca.15move something on a surface [transitive always + adverb/preposition]RUB to move something lightly along a surfaceCharles ran his fingers through her hair.Run the scanner over the bar codes.16flow [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]LIQUID to flow in a particular direction or placeTears started to run down her cheeks.Water was running off the roof.17tap [intransitive, transitive]DHH if a tap is running, water is coming out of it, or if you run a tap, you make water come out of itDid you leave the tap running?He ran the tap until the water was really hot.18 →run a bath19somebody’s nose [intransitive]HBH if someone’s nose is running, liquid is flowing out of it20official papers [intransitive]USE something if something runs for a particular length of time, it can officially be used for that timeThe contract runs for a year.My car insurance only has another month to run.21play/film [intransitive]APTAMF to continue being performed regularly in one placeThe play ran for two years.22happen [intransitive]PLAN to happen in a particular way or at a particular timeAndy kept things running smoothly (=happening in the way they should) while I was away.He was given a further three month prison sentence to run concurrently.The course runs over a three year period.23amount/price [intransitive] to be at a particular level, amount, or pricerun atInflation was running at 5%.run toThe cost of repairing the damage could run to $5000.24story/account etc [intransitive, transitive]STORY if a story, discussion etc runs in a particular way, it has those particular words or eventsThe story runs that someone offered Lynch a further $500.‘President’s marriage really over’ ran the headline in a national newspaper.25 →run its course26 →something will run and run27thoughts/feelings [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]THINK something/HAVE A THOUGHT if a feeling runs through you, or a thought runs through your mind, you feel it or think it quicklyrun through/downA feeling of excitement ran through her body as they touched.The same thought kept running through his mind.A cold shiver ran down my back.I felt a sharp pain run down my leg.28 →run high29 →run somebody’s life30 →run for cover31colour in clothes [intransitive]SPREAD if colour runs, it spreads from one piece of clothing or one area of cloth to another when the clothes are wetThe T-shirt ran and made all my other clothes pink.32paint/ink [intransitive]SPREAD if paint runs, it moves onto an area where you did not intend it to go33 →run a check/test/experiment etc34hole in clothes [intransitive]DCCHOLE if a hole in tights or stockings runs, it gets bigger in a straight line35 →run drugs/guns36 →run in the family37 →run a temperature/fever38 →run a mile39 →run late/early/on time40 →be running scared41 →come running42 →run your eyes over/along etc something43 →run before you can walk44 →run a (red) light →running1, → cut and runat cut1(38), → be/run/go counter to somethingat counter3, → run deepat deep2(4), → run dryat dry1(4), → run lowat low1(4), → run somebody raggedat ragged(5), → run rings around somebodyat ring1(8), → run riotat riot1(2), → be running shortat short3(2), → run somebody/something to earthat earth1(14), → run to fatat fat2(6), → run somebody/something to groundat ground1(19), → run to seedat seed1(4), → run wildat wild2(1), → be up and runningat up1(22)THESAURUSrun to move very quickly, by moving your legs more quickly than when you walkMy five-year-old son runs everywhere.I go running twice a week.jog to run quite slowly for exercise over a long distanceA few people were jogging in the park.race/dash to run somewhere as quickly as you can, especially because you have to do something urgentlyHe dashed across the road to the police station.We raced to the bus stop and got there just in time.sprint to run as fast as you can for a short distanceI saw the runners sprinting past.He sprinted up the stairs.tear to run very quickly and without really looking where you are going, because you are in a hurryHe tore down the street and around the corner.charge to run quickly and with a lot of energy, so that you might knock down anyone or anything that gets in your wayThey all charged out of the school gates at 4 o'clock.Dennis charged through the door into my office.take to your heels to start running away very quickly, especially to escape or because you are afraidThe men took to their heels as soon as they saw the police.leg it British English informal to run away very quickly, in order to escape from someone or somethingI legged it before the cops came.lope especially literary to run easily with long steps – used especially about tall people with long legsJohn loped across the street to meet me.animals runningtrot to run fairly slowly, taking short steps – used especially about horses and dogsA little dog was trotting behind her.gallop if a horse gallops, it runs very quicklyThe horse galloped off across the field.bolt to suddenly run somewhere very fast, especially in order to escapeSuddenly a fox bolted out from beneath a hedge. →run across somebody/something →run after somebody/something →run along →run around →run around after somebody →run around with somebody →run away →run away with somebody/something →run something by/past somebody →run down →run somebody/something ↔ in →run into somebody/something →run off →run off with somebody/something →run on →run out →run out on somebody →run over →run something past somebody →run round →run through →run to somebody/something →run up something →run up against something/somebody →run with something→ See Verb table
Examples from the Corpus
run• Ellis has not yet announced whether or not he will run.• I've never run a marathon before.• Christina runs a restaurant in Houston.• Her dog was running after a rabbit and did not hear her calling.• A streamruns along the bottom of the field.• The servant was frightened and ran away.• They ran back and found Alice had been struck dead by lighting.• a drug counselling service that is run by ex-addicts• Caltrain runscommuter trains to San Jose.• Mr Elliott suffered both internal and external injuries when he was allegedly run down twice by a car at the weekend.• I think I'll probably run for about 40 minutes, then come back for a shower.• I ran four miles Saturday, and I can tell you I was exhausted after it.• Dorothy was reunited with her family after the newspaper ran her story.• We run into this problem here in Congress.• Most of the former inmates sought refuge in his abbey, and many stayed on to help run it.• How has your car been running lately?• As they ran on together across the flat open plateau, Yanto explained breathlessly what he had done.• Sedentary men, particularly those over 40, should not start a running program without a physical exam, he said.• I ranscreaming out of the house.• A dog ran straight out in front of my car.• Barkley's contract only runs through next season.• On my daily mailrun to the Chautauqua office I feel the mountains over my shoulder stalking me.• He kept on running until he was out in the open country.• I hope these jeans don't run when I wash them.• I'm afraid the colorsran when I washed your shirt.ran for ... life• Farmers who had refused to leave their homes and livestockran for their lives.run in• Owens is running in the 200 meters.well/badly run• Schools were clean, attractive, safe, and well run.• The office had never been so well run.• But despite the criticisms, the prison is described as well run and the report praised staff relations with the inmates.• Panel interviews, if they are well run and well organized, can be particularly searching.• Needwood Muppet, 25-1 with Coral, could well run into a place.• In Belfast we assumed that the number of socially-patterned variables that we might uncover could well run into the hundreds.• Man, that was a badly run operation.• In race one, Hodgson was able to get a better run through the backmarkers and hold the lead to the line.run to• Weekly rates run to $3,750 during June, July, and August.• Then came a time when I was running, not knowing where I was running to.• But sadly there was no longer an Aunt Millie to run to.• The company budget wouldn't run to a Mercedes, so I had to make do with a Ford instead.• I don't think my salary quite runs to holidays in the Caribbean!• They run to keep alive a tradition started by colonial Brits 58 years ago.• Well I warned you, so don't come running to me when everything goes wrong!• At least four names are in the running to replace Dole.• The interview transcriptsrun to some 121 pages and can only be superficially summarized here.• The measures will run to the end of 1990, the same period as wage controls imposed at the weekend.• More of the Duke's men had run to the room and the noise of the fighting grew louder.• I need to run to the store for some milk.• She ran to the wall and began to climb.run to• But sadly there was no longer an Aunt Millie to run to.• Then came a time when I was running, not knowing where I was running to.• They run to keep alive a tradition started by colonial Brits 58 years ago.• At least four names are in the running to replace Dole.• The interview transcripts run to some 121 pages and can only be superficially summarized here.• The measures will run to the end of 1990, the same period as wage controls imposed at the weekend.• More of the Duke's men had run to the room and the noise of the fighting grew louder.• She ran to the wall and began to climb.run on• Sorry, I'm running on a bit. What did you want to say?• Don't allow meetings to run on; set an agenda and stick to it.• Business lunches do tend to run on sometimes.run on electricity/gas/petrol etc• Even on the lake for instance, motorboats are not allowed and the hired boats run on electricity.• Or you could have your engine converted to run on gas.• Ultimately this reefruns on electricity.ran out of control• Illegal trophy hunting ran out of control and 80 per cent of the Serengeti's elephants died.run for office• I wanted to run for office.• Money not only determines who is elected, it determines who runs for office.• On second thought, maybe he could just run for office.• Stephen Merrill when he ran for office.• Women's business, trade and expertise; women identifying talent in other women and supporting them to run for office.• Not surprisingly, James was against the idea of my running for office from the start.• If you ran for office here and said you were for late-term abortions, you could pretty much hang it up.• The citizens who stepped out of the crowd and ran for officeTuesday showed they had that trait.runs the length of• Then Red runs the length of the court, grabs a pass, drives to the basket and sinks one.• From here another narrow twisting road begins which runs the length of the Duddon valley.running smoothly• Riboli and his wife keep the wineryrunning smoothly.• But it's just to keep things running smoothly.• Tiny, energetic, imaginative, she drove advertising sales to ever-new heights and kept the business departments running smoothly.• Today Riboli, his wife Maddalena and their children keep the winery running smoothly.• Once the engine is running smoothly, a backfire can be dramatic.• My job as duty officer involves keeping Teesside Airportrunning smoothly at all times.• Like every other business, it needs good management to keep it running smoothly, especially during times of change.• Yes, things were running smoothly once more.• Backup power at bridge Backup power systems kept the GoldenGate Bridge tollplazarunning smoothly with no delays on the bridge.run to• But sadly there was no longer an Aunt Millie to run to.• Then came a time when I was running, not knowing where I was running to.• At least four names are in the running to replace Dole.• The interview transcripts run to some 121 pages and can only be superficially summarized here.• The measures will run to the end of 1990, the same period as wage controls imposed at the weekend.• More of the Duke's men had run to the room and the noise of the fighting grew louder.• She ran to the wall and began to climb.run through/down• The festival opens Feb. 28 and runs throughApril 4.• The two-for-one faresrun through Feb. 14.• The exhibitruns throughFebruary 9.• Tears running down her face, she put the eggs back in their nest a false picture of natural felicity.• She realized that he must know exactly what was running through her mind.• The yard will be run down over the next three weeks with the loss of 600 jobs.• It is impossible to see a logical pattern running through the narrative as Luke records it.
runrun2 ●●●S1W1 noun1on foot [countable]RUN a period of time spent running, or a distance that you run → jog, sprinta five-mile runShe usually goes for a run before breakfast.He was still following me, and in a panic I broke into a run.at a runSarah left the house at a run.2 →in the long run3 →in the short run4 →the usual/normal/general run of something5series [countable usually singular] a series of successes or failures → string, streakan unbeaten run of 19 gamesrun of good/bad luckLosing my job was the start of a run of bad luck that year.a run of defeats/victories etcHis extraordinary run of successes has been stopped.6amount produced [countable] an amount of a product produced at one timea limited run of 200 copies7 →be on the run8 →do something on the run9 →make a run for it10 →the run of something11 →a run on something12 →give somebody a (good) run for their money13 →have a (good) run for your money14 →the runs15play/film [countable]APTAMF a continuous series of performances of a play, film etc in the same placeHis first play had a three-month run in the West End.16journey [singular]a)TTTRAVELa journey by train, ship, truck etc made regularly between two placesIt’s only a 55-minute run from London to Brighton.the daily school run (=the journey that parents make each day taking their children to and from school) British Englishb)informalTTCTRAVEL a short journey in a car, for pleasureLet’s take the car out for a run.17for animals [countable]TAHBA an enclosed area where animals such as chickens or rabbits are kepta chicken run18sport [countable]DSBDSC a point won in cricket or baseballJones made 32 runs this afternoon.19winter sports [countable]DSO a special area or track on a mountain for people to ski or sledge downa ski run20election [countable usually singular] American English an attempt to be elected to an important positionrun forHe is preparing a run for the presidency.21in clothes [countable] American EnglishDCCTEAR a line of torn stitches in tights or stockings syn ladder British English22music [countable]APM a set of notes played or sung quickly up or down a scale in a piece of music23card games [countable]DGC a set of cards with numbers in a series, held by one player →dry run, dummy run, fun run, milk run, print run, trial run
Examples from the Corpus
run• The West Indies beat Australia by 273 runs.• Camilli scored 936 runs in 12 major-league seasons.• Long distance runners follow a different training programme from other athletes.• As a narrator, Stella gives James Joyce a run for his stream-of-consciousness money.• Both resorts offer beginner to expert runs.• After his run, he took a long shower.• But in the long run the outcome of the race between food production and population growth remains too hard to call.• Your educated boys went at it a little more privately and gracefully, but sometimes destroyed more people in the long run.• Cher wins the prize for longest run of success.• a 5-mile run• They left Anchorage at nine for the forty-mile run to Matanuska.• Countess Maud was set for a record run.• The show moves to London's West End after a month's run in Leicester's GalaTheatre.• Dunaway is starring in a six-week run of "Master Class" in Los Angeles.at a run• A couple of men rounded the plantation, going at a run towards the lake.• He looked beautiful on a tennis court; he was a pleasure to look at running for a bus.• The evidence suggests that women are on average slightly better than men at running countries.• The kids set off at a run for the swing sets.• Rory set off at a run.• Then they set off at a run, Jim and Louise leading the way, Jube pounding along behind them.• The user has also to construct a path through the relations thus setting up the linkages required at run time.• Lewis has always been one of the greatest in the sport at running men down.• He lined up at running back and tailback.run of good/bad luck• Then he had a run of bad luck.• Perhaps the constable who carried out the test was merely having a run of bad luck.• Despite their current run of bad luck, the Giants are drawing record crowds at Scottsdale Stadium.• Maybe this is my run of bad luck over with.school run• The victim was a 13-year-old pupil at a school run by the defendant's wife.• And others on the scientific level who would claim the excuse of a school run, or taking the wife to Surgery.• The 1980s have also seen the development of four military schools run by the army but privately financed.• I felt I could whizz it round the country lanes on school runs and trips up to town.• Some colleges and private schools run summer programs for kids, as do some of the larger daycare centers.• As a consequence, private schools flourished, from the very expensive to the shantytownschools run by women in the slums.• You could go to Newcastle or York shopping and be back in time to do the school run.• What they do see me doing is the school run, shopping, cooking their meals and running the household.made ... runs• Gunshipsmade their chattering runs beside us, and door gunners killed bushes.• Gooch has scored 2124 runs at an average of 50.57, whereas Gower has made 2183 runs at 50.76.• It was nice to be part of a winning side and even better to have made a few runs.• As a batsman he made 3,882 runs at a modest average, but showed himself a robust tail-ender when it mattered.• It made short runs, and at each stop I heard a very brief buzz that sounded like some giant fly.• While my group circled for another attempt, others made their runs, some trying as many as three before succeeding.• Money was made by long runs of dresses successfully sold.From Longman Business Dictionaryrunrun1 /rʌn/ verb (past tense ran /ræn/, past participle run, present participle running)1[transitive] to control or be in charge of an organization, company, or systemI’ve always wanted to run my own business.For a while, she ran a restaurant in Boston.A well-run company should not have problems of this kind.a state-run airline2[intransitive, transitive]COMPUTINGMANUFACTURING if you run a machine or a computer program, you make it workHow many times a week do you run your washing machine?The software will run on any PC.cars that run on unleaded petrol3up and runningCOMPUTINGMANUFACTURING working fully and correctlyThe new system won’t be up and running until next week.4[intransitive]LAW to continue to be VALID (legally or officially acceptable) for a particular period of timeThe contract runs for a year.My car insurance only has another year to run.5[intransitive] to happen or take place, especially in the way that was intendedSo far, it had all run according to plan (=happened in the way that had been planned).Her job is to ensure university catering runs smoothly (=happens with no unexpected problems).6[transitive] to operate a bus, train, or plane serviceThey’re running special trains to and from the exhibition.7be running at something to currently be at a particular levelInflation at that time was running at 10%.8be running short of something to have very little of something leftThe insurance fund was running short of cash.9be running late to be doing everything later than planned or expectedThey were running late, so I didn’t get interviewed until nearly 4 o'clock.10run a check/test on somebody/something to check or test someone or somethingCar-rental companies are running background checks on drivers who rent for long periods.She worked for a company running credit checks on people.11[intransitive] to try to be elected in an electionrun forHe has yet to decide whether to run for chairman.run againstthe candidates who are hoping to run against the President in November12run an advertisement/a story/a feature etc to print an advertisement, a story etc in a newspaper or magazinemagazines that don’t run tobacco adsThe paper still runs articles that anger dealers.13ECONOMICS run a deficit/surplus to have less or more money than is neededThe government is running a large budget surplus. →run something by somebody →run down →run into something →run something → off →run out →run to something →run up →run up against somebody/something→ See Verb tablerunrun2 noun1[countable] a series of similar events, especially successes or failuresrun ofThe company has had a run of spectacularly successful years. →bear run →bull run2a run on somethingCOMMERCE when a lot of people suddenly buy a particular productControls were necessary to prevent a run on inexpensive Czech goods.3a run on a bank (also a bank run)BANKINGFINANCE when a lot of people all take their money out of a bank at the same timeA run on any bank could spread to other banks and threaten the entire system.Even a minor bank run could bring down the system.4a run on the dollar/pound etcFINANCE when a lot of people sell dollars, pounds etc and their value goes downFinancial markets panicked, causing a run on the Brazilian currency.5in the long run at a later time in the future or over a longer period of timeThe company believes that the move will save it money in the long run.6in the short run in the near futureThe plan does provide some help in the short run.7MANUFACTURING an amount of a product that is produced at one timeLarge production runs are necessary in order to cover the massive fixed costs involved in developing new cars.The book has already sold out its initial print run of 20,000 copies.8run of book/paper/network/siteMARKETING run of book etc advertisements can be put anywhere in a magazine or newspaper, or on any website or part of a website, rather than in a particular place