English version

spread

From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishspreadspread1 /spred/ ●●● S2 W2 verb (past tense and past participle spread)  1 affect more people/places [intransitive, transitive]SPREAD if something spreads or is spread, it becomes larger or moves so that it affects more people or a larger areaspread through Fire quickly spread through the building.spread over He watched the dark stain spread over the gray carpet.spread among The disease spread rapidly amongst the poor.spread (from something) to something The cancer had spread to her liver. Revolution quickly spread from France to Italy.2 information/ideas a) [intransitive]SPREAD to become known about or used by more and more people News of the explosion spread swiftly.spread to/through/over etc Buddhism spread to China from India. The news spread like wildfire (=very quickly). Word spread quickly that she was leaving. b) [transitive]TELL to tell a lot of people about something Andy loves spreading rumours about his colleagues. They are spreading the word about the benefits of immunization.3 open/arrange (also spread out) [transitive]SPREAD to open something out or arrange a group of things so that they cover a flat surfacespread something over/across/on something Papers and photos were spread across the floor. He spread the map out on the desk. a table spread with a white cloth4 throughout an area [intransitive] (also be spread, spread out) to cover or exist across a large areaspread over the forest that spread over the whole of that regionspread throughout The company has more than 2,500 shops spread throughout the UK.5 soft substance [intransitive, transitive]SPREAD to put a soft substance over a surface, or to be soft enough to be put over a surfacespread something on/over something He spread plaster on the walls.spread something with something Spread the toast thinly with jam. If you warm up the butter, it’ll spread more easily. Spread the nut mixture evenly over the bottom.6 arms/fingers etc [transitive]PUSH if you spread your arms, fingers, or legs, you move them far apart He shrugged and spread his hands.7 over time [transitive] (also spread out)SLOW to do something over a period of time, rather than at one timespread something over something Could I spread the repayments over a longer period? There will be 12 concerts spread throughout the summer.8 share [transitive]SHARE to share or divide something among several people or thingsspread the load/burden The bills are sent out on different dates to spread the workload on council staff. They want the country’s wealth to be more evenly spread.9 smile/look [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]EXPRESSION ON somebody'S FACE if an expression spreads over someone’s face, it slowly appears on their facespread over/across A slow smile spread over her face.10 spread your wings11 a) be spread (too) thin/thinly if money, effort etc is spread thin, it is being used for many things so there is not enough for each thing They complained that resources were spread too thinly. b) spread yourself too thin to try to do too many things at the same time so that you do not do any of them effectively12 spread seeds/manure/fertilizer spread your net wide at net1(8)COLLOCATIONSMeanings 1 & 2nounsa disease spreads/is spread (=among a group of people)The disease is spread by mosquitoes.a cancer/infection spreads (=in someone’s body)The cancer had spread to his brain.news/word spreadsAs news of his death spread, his army disintegrated.spread the news/the wordHe has been spreading the word about ways to beat heart disease.spread a story (also spread a rumour British English, spread a rumor American English)When Brown’s hotel burned down, Clark spread the rumor that Forsyth was to blame.a story spreads (also a rumour spreads British English, a rumor spreads American English)It was the sort of story that would spread like wildfire.spread lies/gossipHow dare you spread such vicious lies!Has someone been spreading malicious gossip?spread terror/panicThe murders were clearly intended to spread terror.fire spreads (also flames spread)The fire had spread to a nearby shed.violence/fighting spreadsThere is no indication that the violence is likely to spread.somebody’s fame/reputation spreadsTheir musical fame has spread far beyond their native country.adverbsspread rapidly/quicklyThe fire spread rapidly, consuming many of the houses.phrasesspread like wildfire (=spread extremely quickly)The news spread like wildfire through the town. spread out→ See Verb table
Examples from the Corpus
spreadBy then, the flood water had spread across 80 square miles of farmland.She was on a sheet, naked with her legs spread apart.Thus a gene for chromosomal fratricide will spread as surely as a murderer will inherit the Earth.I don't want the mess spreading back into my working world.AIDS is not spread by common everyday contact.Malaria, spread by mosquitoes, is one of the biggest public health problems in Africa.After she died at a San Jose hospital, word spread fast.A single tractor was slowly spreading fertilizer over a huge wheatfield.Meyer and his team were the first to show how the disease spreads from animals to humans.Here, a key way for an individual to spread his or her point of view is to get connected.The lawsuit charged the magazine with spreading lies about the company and its products.When low performance leads to an organizational crisis, rumors of executive malfeasance spread like wildfire among rank-and-file members.Refugees have entered the south of the country and are spreading northwards.The fire is spreading out of control.The forest fires in the Northwest are spreading out of control.With the large number of children spread out over the country, it was inevitable that visits were infrequent.She knocked over her glass, and a dark pool of wine spread over the tablecloth.News of the disaster was spreading quickly.Spread the frosting over the warm pastries.Make sure that you spread the glue on both surfaces.In one, the businessperson allocated time, spreading the project over several weeks.She spread the toast with butter and jam.Spreading the work around will help us meet the project deadline.Panic spread through downtown Port-au-Prince.Cholera is spreading through the refugee camps at an alarming rate.Rumors about Amy spread through the school.The fire quickly spread to several nearby factories.When it is placed in a container it spreads uniformly throughout the whole volume of the container.spread overFor 20 days spread over 1988 and 1989 he compared spot and futures returns for five-minute periods.He felt a relieved smile spreading over his face and something like freedom in his heart.Conservation areas can be spread over large chunks of historic towns or just one street.In other words the tax is not spread over previous transactions, but is charged on the full amount of the sale.Life companies are to be assessed each year on the gains on their units, and taxes spread over seven years.Pages were spread over the wineglasses and dinner plates.His $ 750,000 signing bonus was spread over three years at $ 250,000 per year.spread to/through/over etcThe purge soon spread to an onslaught against oppositionists within the party itself.The cancer, having spread to my bones, is inoperable.Pray that the conflict would not spread to neighbouring countries.A wave of electrical activity spreads over the heart.The white, rubbery fluid spread over the metal skin, hiding the crater from view.By Saturday morning, cold air had spread over the region, turning the snowpack bulletproof.The funding of capital expenditure is usually spread over the years that benefit will accrue.The industrial action quickly spread to transport and municipal workers and workers on tea, sugar and tobacco plantations.spread overFor 20 days spread over 1988 and 1989 he compared spot and futures returns for five-minute periods.He felt a relieved smile spreading over his face and something like freedom in his heart.Conservation areas can be spread over large chunks of historic towns or just one street.In other words the tax is not spread over previous transactions, but is charged on the full amount of the sale.Life companies are to be assessed each year on the gains on their units, and taxes spread over seven years.Pages were spread over the wineglasses and dinner plates.His $ 750,000 signing bonus was spread over three years at $ 250,000 per year.spread something on/over somethingShe spread the frosting evenly over the cake.spread something over somethingThe various musical performances will be spread over three days.spread the load/burdenIt's worth trying to draw up a list like this, because it ensures that you spread the load.The best are fairly wide to spread the load and well padded - often with dual-density foam.It is fair; it spreads the burden evenly, providing proper discounts and proper control of local authorities.Whether more participants spreads the load of sin is not altogether clear.Use of the top tensioners also helps to spread the load over the whole of the shoulder harness.The block of softwood can be used to spread the load when using the hammer.spread over/acrossThe project's 30 houses will be built in clusters and spread over a five-acre site.Today that business has spread across all fifty states and fifty-four countries.The exchange would be spread over five years.The sounds are played via the 12 fingertip-sized pads spread across the bottom quarter of the front panel.The white, rubbery fluid spread over the metal skin, hiding the crater from view.The clouds running before the sun were spreading across the pink of the sky.Increasingly, however, banks want businesses that pay them fees up front rather than interest payments spread over time.Today they last a long time and spread across wider territories.
Related topics: Food, Stocks & shares
spreadspread2 ●●○ noun  1 increase [singular]INCREASE IN NUMBER OR AMOUNT when something affects or is known about by more people or involves a larger areaincreasespread of an attempt to stop the spread of nuclear weapons the rapid spread of cholera in Latin America2 soft food [countable, uncountable]DF a) a soft substance made from vegetable oil that is used like butter one slice of toast with a low-fat spread b) a soft food which you spread on breadcheese/chocolate etc spread3 range [singular]VARIOUS/OF DIFFERENT KINDS a range of people or thingswide/broad/good spread of something We have a good spread of ages in the department. a broad spread of investments4 area [singular] the total area in which something exists the geographical spread of the company’s hotels5 double-page spread/centre spread6 large meal [singular] informalMEAL a large meal for several guests on a special occasion Tom’s mum laid on a huge spread.7 hand/wings [uncountable]HBPHBH the area covered when the fingers of a hand, or a bird’s wings, are fully stretched8 bed cover [countable] a bedspread9 money [countable] technicalBFS the difference between the prices at which something is bought and sold, or the interest rates for lending and borrowing moneyspread between the spread between the city banks’ loan rates and deposit rates10 sport [singular] American English the number of points between the scores of two opposing teams a four-point spread11 spread of land/water12 farm [countable] American EnglishTA a large farm or ranch middle-aged spread at middle-aged(3)
Examples from the Corpus
spreadThis led us to ask if there was intrafamilial spread of H pylori.We always pause just where we can see the majestic spread of Notre Dame.There was a nice spread at the reception after the wedding.More ominously, the effort to halt the nuclear spread could also stall.There's a big three-page spread about them in Sunday's paper.But the spread of Internet use outside the United States is converting a national mess into a global one.The process of proletarianisation has also received some impetus from the spread of agribusiness in the region.The only way to prevent the spread of tuberculosis is to cure those infected by the disease.The Thatcher government has opposed planning controls over agriculture that could have stopped the spread of intensive arable farming.They were looking forward to the spread that Judith had prepared.This spread is about 0. 05 percentage point tighter than a month ago, traders said.rapid spreadThe result has been a rapid spread of unsightly buildings across the countryside.All three factors are thought to have played a part in the rapid spread of the disease.The rapid spread of small arms and light weapons facilitate the recruitment of child soldiers.cheese/chocolate etc spreadBlend with cream cheese and grated Cheddar to create a cheese spread.Soon, the fame of Dunlop cheese spread throughout the county and the process was adopted widely.Rub in the butter with the hands, then add the low-fat cheese spread and work in with the hands.wide/broad/good spread of somethingThe information in your letter is generally interesting, factual and covers a wide spread of abuses.Very few papers indeed, therefore, had a wide spread of shareholders.It incorporates a wide spread of disciplines and its members have been, or are, involved in a variety of professions.To achieve that, they need a wide spread of artists.This journal has a long and distinguished history, publishing mainly shorter papers on a wide spread of subjects.The assets are actively managed and represent a wide spread of fixed interest stocks, U.K. and overseas equity shares and property.Today's student teachers and young graduates undoubtedly represent a broader spread of social background - and this is to be welcomed.geographical spreadWe also looked for a geographical spread of writers.The appeal of a merger included widening Martineau's client base, a greater geographical spread and having more resources.The geographical spread is reasonable, though doubtless there will be some omissions apparent depending on where you are based.The geographical spread of the observers is skewed.
From Longman Business Dictionaryspreadspread1 /spred/ verb (past tense and past participle spread)1[transitive] to share work, responsibility, or money among several peopleCompanies may want to spread their equity widely among stable, long-term shareholders.2[transitive] (also spread out) to pay for something gradually over a period of timeI asked if I could spread out the repayments.spread something over somethingSpread your premium payments over 12 monthly instalments.The cost is spread out over ten years.3[intransitive] to become widely used or known aboutDeregulation is spreading across the whole of Europe.4spread a riskINSURANCE to reduce the chance of a large loss by sharing the risk of insuring someone or something with other insurance companies→ See Verb tablespreadspread2 noun1[singular] a range of people or things, especially investmentsspread ofThe bank is keen to broaden its spread of risks.The assets represent a wide spread of fixed interest stocks, equity shares and property.2[countable]BANKING the difference between the interest rate a bank pays on DEPOSITs (=money put in the bank) and the interest rate it charges on loansspread betweenBanks must maintain an adequate spread between borrowing and lending rates. yield spread3[countable]FINANCE the difference between two rates of interest. Interest on company bonds is often set in relation to the interest on particular government bondsThe noncallable notes were priced at a spread of 87.5 basis points (=0.875%) over the yield on the Treasury’s 10-year note.4[countable]FINANCE the difference between the buying price and the selling price of shares, UNIT TRUSTs etcThe spread between the bid and ask prices for the options is ¼ to ½ point $25 to $50 an option.5[countable]FINANCE the difference between the buying price and the selling price of a currency, or between two rates for a currencyThe policy of frequent devaluations of the Nicaraguan currency is designed to eliminate the spread between official and black-market exchange rates.6[countable] (also underwriting spread)FINANCE the difference between the price a financial institution pays to buy shares from the company that ISSUEs them (=makes them available) and the higher price the firm charges to investors who buy themThe underwriting spread can range from 3.5% to 7% of the offering price. bid-offer spread7[countable]FINANCE in a MONETARY SYSTEM (=an arrangement where the values of currencies move in relation to each other within certain limits), the difference between the highest valued currency and the lowestThe dollar remained the grid’s strongest currency, with the spread between it and the weakest currency widening to 11%.
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Verb table
spread
Simple Form
Present
I, you, we, theyspread
he, she, itspreads
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Past
I, you, he, she, it, we, theyspread
Present perfect
I, you, we, theyhave spread
he, she, ithas spread
Past perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theyhad spread
Future
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill spread
Future perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill have spread
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Continuous Form
Present
Iam spreading
he, she, itis spreading
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you, we, theyare spreading
Past
I, he, she, itwas spreading
you, we, theywere spreading
Present perfect
I, you, we, theyhave been spreading
he, she, ithas been spreading
Past perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theyhad been spreading
Future
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill be spreading
Future perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill have been spreading
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