From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishtoto1 /tə; before vowels tʊ; strong tuː/ ●●●S1W1 [used before the basic form of a verb to show that it is in the infinitive]1XXa)used after a verb, noun, or adjective when an infinitivecompletes its meaningWe tried to explain.It was starting to rain.The manager asked them to leave.an attempt to escapeHave you got permission to stay here?Our team’s certain to win.Are you ready to start?This delicious dessert is easy to make (=you can make it easily).b)used by itself instead of an infinitive in order to avoidrepeating the same verbYou can drive today if you want to (=if you want to drive).I could have helped, but nobody asked me to.2XXused after a word such as ‘how’, ‘where’, ‘who’, ‘what’, or ‘whether’ to refer to an action about which someone is not certainI know where to go but I don’t know how to get there.She wondered whether or not to trust him.3TO/IN ORDER TOused to show a purpose or intentionThey left early to catch the 7.30 train.To find out more about university courses, write to this address.We need more money to improve transport in London.RegisterIn written English, people often use in order to rather than just to when expressing a purpose or intention, because it sounds more formal:Investment has been increased in order to improve the transport system.4used to refer to an action or state, when describing itIt’s nice to be wanted.He’s finding it hard to cope.To say I am disappointed is an understatement.The simplest solution would be to increase the price.5used to say what can or cannot be done, or what should be doneYou’ll soon be old enough to vote in elections.He did not have the energy to resist.I’m too tired to go out tonight.
6XXused after the verb ‘be’ to give an order or to state arrangements for the futureYou are to wait here until I return.They are to be married on May 25th.7used to say what someone discovers or experiences when they do somethingHe arrived there to find that the last train had already left.The princess stepped ashore to be greeted by an enthusiastic crowd of admirers.She woke to see Ben standing by the window.8used to say what your attitude or purpose is in saying somethingI’ve never heard of him, to be quite honest.To begin with, let’s look at Chapter 3.toto2 ●●●S1W1 preposition1TOWARDSused to say where someone or something goesShe stood up and walked to the window.the road to Londonour weekly trip to the supermarketsending a spaceship to MarsThese people go from house to house selling goods (=visit many different houses).2used to say who receives something or is told or shown somethingHe sent presents to the children.She whispered something to the girl beside her.Give my best wishes to your parents when you see them.Don’t show these letters to anyone else.a message from the Emperor to his people3XXused to show in which direction something is in relation to something elseKnutsford is about 16 miles to the south of Manchester.There was a table to the left of the doorway.4XXused to show the purpose, event, or activity for which you go somewhereSophie goes to gymnastics every Friday.Did you get an invitation to their wedding?Don’t forget, we’re going to a party tomorrow night.If he needed help, Mother came rushing to the rescue.5XXused to say what state someone or something is in as a result of an action or changeShe sang the baby to sleep.Wait until the lights change to green.a return to a traditional way of life
6XXused to say that one thing is touching anotherHe held a knife to her throat.They danced cheek to cheek.7used to say where something is fastened or connectedHe tied the rope to a tree.Attach a recent photograph to your application form.Cash machines are linked up to a central computer.8TOWARDSfacing something or in front of itI sat with my back to the window.We were standing face to face.9used to show a relationship with someone or somethingGeorge’s sister was married to an Italian.He was first cousin to King Philip VI.The robbery may be linked to other crimes of violence.10UNTILa)as far as a particular point or limitShe can already count from one to twenty.The water came right up to our knees.Temperatures dropped to 25 degrees below zero.It’s ten kilometres from here to the coast.She read the novel from beginning to end.Does your interest in nuclear physics extend to nuclear weaponry?b)until and including a particular time or dateThey stayed from Friday night to Sunday morning.I’ll be on duty from 8 am to 10 pm.
11used to say what or who an action, attitude, situation etc affects or is related toThe factory clearly represents a danger to health.She’s always been kind to animals.his attitude to lifeWhat have you done to the radio? It’s not working.12XXused to say who someone works forJane is secretary to the managing director.13used to say what something is needed forI’m still waiting for an answer to my question.Have you seen the key to the back door?14COMPAREused when comparing two things, numbers etcEngland beat Scotland by two goals to one.Yes, she was punished, but it was nothing to what she deserved.15XXused to say who has a particular attitude or opinion about somethingThe whole thing sounds very suspicious to me.Tickets cost £10 each and to some people that’s a lot of money.To my mind, age does not matter; love is what matters.
16XXused to say what someone’s reaction is when something happensMuch to everyone’s surprise she passed the exam with distinction.I discovered to my horror that my passport was missing.17UNTILused when saying how much time there is before a particular event or timeIt’s only two weeks to Christmas.How long is it to dinner?ten to five/twenty to one etc (=ten minutes, twenty minutes etc before a particular hour)18XXa)used when talking about a rate or quantity to say how many smaller unitsequal a larger unitWe’re only getting 130 yen to the dollar at the moment.There are just over four and a half litres to a gallon.b)used to show the relationship between two differentmeasurements or quantitiesThe car will do over 40 miles to the gallon.The scale of your map is one inch to the mile.19used to say that a particular sound is heard at the same time as something happensI woke to the sound of torrential rain.The royal couple arrived to a fanfare of trumpets.I like to exercise to music.20XXused between two numbers when you do not know exactly what the real number or amount isThere must have been eighteen to twenty thousand people at the concert.He drowned in 10 to 12 feet of water.
21 →(all) to yourself22DGGused to say what the chances of something happening areI’ll bet you ten to one he’ll forget all about it.
Examples from the Corpus
to• Contreras was driving at 80 to 90 miles per hour.• 100-1 odds• "What time is it?" "Ten to five."• Do you want to go to Mika's wedding with me?• Jason's hair is down to his shoulders now.• After an hour outside my hands had turned toice.• He turned his back to me and walked away.• He doesn't even say "Hi" to me anymore.• It seems to me that we should just buy a new TV.• Nathan, you sit here to my right.• I'll bet you 50 to one he doesn't show up.• It's ten to six.• It doesn't get dark until about twenty to ten.• Do you have the keysto the house?• It's just a weekto the wedding - how do you feel?• Mt. Eddy is directly to the west of Mt. Shasta.• He's going to Tokyo on a businesstrip.• A toZtoto3 /tuː/ ●●○ adverb British EnglishXXif a door is pushed to, it closes or almost closesThe wind blew the door to. →come to