English version


From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishtoto1 /; before vowels; strong tuː/ ●●● S1 W1 [used before the basic form of a verb to show that it is in the infinitive]  1 XX a) used after a verb, noun, or adjective when an infinitive completes its meaning We tried to explain. It was starting to rain. The manager asked them to leave. an attempt to escape Have you got permission to stay here? Our team’s certain to win. Are you ready to start? This delicious dessert is easy to make (=you can make it easily). b) used by itself instead of an infinitive in order to avoid repeating the same verb You can drive today if you want to (=if you want to drive). I could have helped, but nobody asked me to.2 XXused after a word such as ‘how’, ‘where’, ‘who’, ‘what’, or ‘whether’ to refer to an action about which someone is not certain I know where to go but I don’t know how to get there. She wondered whether or not to trust him.3 TO/IN ORDER TOused to show a purpose or intention They left early to catch the 7.30 train. To find out more about university courses, write to this address. We need more money to improve transport in London.RegisterIn written English, people often use in order to rather than just to when expressing a purpose or intention, because it sounds more formal:Investment has been increased in order to improve the transport system.4 used to refer to an action or state, when describing it It’s nice to be wanted. He’s finding it hard to cope. To say I am disappointed is an understatement. The simplest solution would be to increase the price.5 used to say what can or cannot be done, or what should be done You’ll soon be old enough to vote in elections. He did not have the energy to resist. I’m too tired to go out tonight.
6 XXused after the verb ‘be’ to give an order or to state arrangements for the future You are to wait here until I return. They are to be married on May 25th.7 used to say what someone discovers or experiences when they do something He arrived there to find that the last train had already left. The princess stepped ashore to be greeted by an enthusiastic crowd of admirers. She woke to see Ben standing by the window.8 used to say what your attitude or purpose is in saying something I’ve never heard of him, to be quite honest. To begin with, let’s look at Chapter 3.
toto2 ●●● S1 W1 preposition  1 TOWARDSused to say where someone or something goes She stood up and walked to the window. the road to London our weekly trip to the supermarket sending a spaceship to Mars These people go from house to house selling goods (=visit many different houses).2 used to say who receives something or is told or shown something He sent presents to the children. She whispered something to the girl beside her. Give my best wishes to your parents when you see them. Don’t show these letters to anyone else. a message from the Emperor to his people3 XXused to show in which direction something is in relation to something else Knutsford is about 16 miles to the south of Manchester. There was a table to the left of the doorway.4 XXused to show the purpose, event, or activity for which you go somewhere Sophie goes to gymnastics every Friday. Did you get an invitation to their wedding? Don’t forget, we’re going to a party tomorrow night. If he needed help, Mother came rushing to the rescue.5 XXused to say what state someone or something is in as a result of an action or change She sang the baby to sleep. Wait until the lights change to green. a return to a traditional way of life
6 XXused to say that one thing is touching another He held a knife to her throat. They danced cheek to cheek.7 used to say where something is fastened or connected He tied the rope to a tree. Attach a recent photograph to your application form. Cash machines are linked up to a central computer.8 TOWARDSfacing something or in front of it I sat with my back to the window. We were standing face to face.9 used to show a relationship with someone or something George’s sister was married to an Italian. He was first cousin to King Philip VI. The robbery may be linked to other crimes of violence.10 UNTIL a) as far as a particular point or limit She can already count from one to twenty. The water came right up to our knees. Temperatures dropped to 25 degrees below zero. It’s ten kilometres from here to the coast. She read the novel from beginning to end. Does your interest in nuclear physics extend to nuclear weaponry? b) until and including a particular time or date They stayed from Friday night to Sunday morning. I’ll be on duty from 8 am to 10 pm.
11 used to say what or who an action, attitude, situation etc affects or is related to The factory clearly represents a danger to health. She’s always been kind to animals. his attitude to life What have you done to the radio? It’s not working.12 XXused to say who someone works for Jane is secretary to the managing director.13 used to say what something is needed for I’m still waiting for an answer to my question. Have you seen the key to the back door?14 COMPAREused when comparing two things, numbers etc England beat Scotland by two goals to one. Yes, she was punished, but it was nothing to what she deserved.15 XXused to say who has a particular attitude or opinion about something The whole thing sounds very suspicious to me. Tickets cost £10 each and to some people that’s a lot of money. To my mind, age does not matter; love is what matters.
16 XXused to say what someone’s reaction is when something happens Much to everyone’s surprise she passed the exam with distinction. I discovered to my horror that my passport was missing.17 UNTILused when saying how much time there is before a particular event or time It’s only two weeks to Christmas. How long is it to dinner?ten to five/twenty to one etc (=ten minutes, twenty minutes etc before a particular hour)18 XX a) used when talking about a rate or quantity to say how many smaller units equal a larger unit We’re only getting 130 yen to the dollar at the moment. There are just over four and a half litres to a gallon. b) used to show the relationship between two different measurements or quantities The car will do over 40 miles to the gallon. The scale of your map is one inch to the mile.19 used to say that a particular sound is heard at the same time as something happens I woke to the sound of torrential rain. The royal couple arrived to a fanfare of trumpets. I like to exercise to music.20 XXused between two numbers when you do not know exactly what the real number or amount is There must have been eighteen to twenty thousand people at the concert. He drowned in 10 to 12 feet of water.
21 (all) to yourself22 DGGused to say what the chances of something happening are I’ll bet you ten to one he’ll forget all about it.
Examples from the Corpus
toContreras was driving at 80 to 90 miles per hour.100-1 odds"What time is it?" "Ten to five."Do you want to go to Mika's wedding with me?Jason's hair is down to his shoulders now.After an hour outside my hands had turned to ice.He turned his back to me and walked away.He doesn't even say "Hi" to me anymore.It seems to me that we should just buy a new TV.Nathan, you sit here to my right.I'll bet you 50 to one he doesn't show up.It's ten to six.It doesn't get dark until about twenty to ten.Do you have the keys to the house?It's just a week to the wedding - how do you feel?Mt. Eddy is directly to the west of Mt. Shasta.He's going to Tokyo on a business trip.A to Z
toto3 /tuː/ ●●○ adverb British English  XXif a door is pushed to, it closes or almost closes The wind blew the door to. come to
Pictures of the day
What are these?
Click on the pictures to check.