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Pronunciation guide: Pronunciation is shown using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

Symbol Keyword
p pen
b back
t ten
d day
k key
g get
f fat
v view
θ thing
ð then
s soon
z zero
ʃ ship
ʒ pleasure
h hot
x loch
m sum
n sun
ŋ sung
w wet
l let
r red
j yet
Symbol Keyword
short ɪ bit
e bed
æ cat
ɒ dog (British English)
ʌ cut
ʊ put
ə about
i happy
u actuality
long sheep
ɑː father
ɒː dog (American English)
ɔː four
ɜː bird
diphthongs make
ɔɪ boy
əʊ note (British English)
note (American English)
ɪə real
hair (British English)
ʊə pure (British English)
Special Signs
$ separates British and American pronunciations: British on the left, American on the right
/ ˈ / shows main stress
/ ˌ / shows secondary stress
/ ◂ / shows stress shift
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